• Moscow Time

2010-12

 December 12, 2012

Putin- Defender of the Faith

“We must secure a firm spiritual and moral foundation for our society… The law can protect morality and should do so…We must wholeheartedly support the institutions that are the carriers of traditional values…”
– President Vladimir Putin, at St George Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace on Constitution Day in Russia.

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November 21, 2012

The Angelic World is Real

“It is only human pride and foolishness that lead us to a glib dismissal of that which we cannot touch with our hands or see with our eyes… If we call upon his holy name, the Archangel Michael is capable of destroying any human power or weapon.”  – His Holiness, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia

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November 4, 2012

The Kazan Icon and National Unity Day

“November 4 is the feast day of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, in commemoration of the deliverance of Moscow from the Poles in 1612. Since 2005, it has likewise been celebrated in Russia as National Unity Day, replacing the Soviet-era “Day of the Great October Socialist Revolution” and the post-Soviet “Day of Reconciliation and Agreement,” both of which were held on November 7.”

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A Supernatural Icon for Mother Russia

Protecting Russia and Europe

“The Virgin of Kazan is one of the most revered Russian religious icons. Its disappearance at the time of the Russian Revolution was a catastrophe, but its resurgence and its link with Pope John Paul II and Fatima has confirmed the icon’s mythical status of securing the fate of “Mother Russia”…

The Virgin of Kazan is one of Russia’s most sacred relics. The icon was discovered on July 8, 1579, in the city of Kazan… A copy of the icon was sent to Czar Ivan the Terrible…

At the time of the Russian Revolution, the basilica housing the icon was destroyed, apparently to prove that God did not exist. As great sledges and rams knocked down the church, loudspeakers blared: “You see, there is no God! We destroy the church of the so-called protectress of Russia, and nothing happens!”

In November 2003, Russian president Vladimir Putin did meet the pope in Rome. During the meeting, an icon known as the Virgin of Kazan was brought from the Pope’s private chapel into the Vatican Library, where the meeting was held. Putin watched as the Pope blessed the icon and then the Russian leader himself kissed it. Few observers seemed to realize the importance of this event. Putin and the Pope, however, did.”

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September 11, 2012

Beheading of St John, the Glorious Prophet

“whenever you are in great sorrow, turn to that first Apostle of Christ, and he will help you with all of your burdens… should others attack you on all sides, should atheists and those who oppose Christ want to swallow you up, to destroy you for belonging to Christ, should they want to silence your voice, to stop it from speaking of Christ, then remember that first Martyr, and call out to him: O Holy Martyr, first Martyr of Christ in the Gospels, hurry to my aid!”

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September 7, 2012

Russian Army Prays Before Battle to Defeat Napoleon

Before the Battle of Borodino the Russian Army prayed to the Icon of the Mother of God (Theotokos), September 6, 1812.

Patriotism and Faith  cannot be divided

“Therefore, with respect to the defense of the Motherland in 1812, we can talk about the inseparability of patriotism and devotion to Orthodoxy. I think that this example may encourage our contemporaries to seriously think about what should be the responsibility of every citizen to his people and country.” – Metropolitan Juvenal

The great Russian military commander, Mikhail Kutuzov, often prayed before the Kazan icon of the Mother of God. He defeated Napoleon and drove him out of Russia. He is buried at the Kazansky Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Next to him are the French military standards and keys to the French fortresses taken by  the Russian Army.

No Russian POWs at Borodino

September 7, 1812, was a day that perpetuated the heroism of Russian soldiers, becoming an eternal memorial to their indomitable courage. That’s how Russia’s Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov described it after engaging Napoleon’s army in a bloody battle near the village of Borodino 150 km west of Moscow.

“Where are the POWs?” Napoleon would wonder as his army fought its way deeper into Russia. He, who had easily subdued half of Europe and had crowned himself Emperor of France, was amazed at the unprecedented degree of resistance he had little expected to encounter.

More than 250,000 soldiers clashed on the Borodino field about 50 square km in area in the early morning of September 7 two centuries ago. About a thousand cannons traded crossfire almost incessantly from dawn to sunset. The losses on both sides were enormous – 2,500 men per every hour of fighting, says historian Andrei Sakharov, a correspondence member of the Academy of Sciences:

Napoleon described Borodino as the greatest battle he had ever fought.

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August 31, 2012

Blessing of Teachers & Students

The Holy Spirit Cathedral in Minsk held a prayer service at the beginning of the school year. Metropolitan Filaret said knowledge is not enough and quoted 1 Cor. 8:1 ,

“…we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up; but charity edifieth.”

He told them to “do good through reason, or at least not to let the mind be tempted by evil – is the true methodology of applying knowledge”. After the service he blessed the students and teachers with Holy Water.

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August 28, 2012

Sermon on the Feast of the Dormition

“For the Mighty One has done great things to me, and Holy is His name

sang Mary, when she had conceived Christ by the Spirit. The Mighty One also did great things for her on the day of her death. One the one hand, she died just as we all do. On the other hand — which is something entirely different — she did not remain in the tomb. Her Son took her to Himself. Clearly then, that love of His which reigns over the redeemed He willed in no other way than together with her who served the mystery of Redemption more that any other.

The tradition about this feast tells us in detail about Gabriel, about the Apostle Thomas, and about a certain bold  Jew named Athonius. The tradition even tells us what Psalm the Apostle Peter sang as he headed the burial procession of the Theotokos. All of this is found in the hymnody and iconography of the feast.”

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August 14, 2012

The Dormition Fast

“The fast in August [Dormition fast] was established in honor of the Mother of God the Word; Who, foreknowing Her repose, ascetically labored and fasted for us as always, although She was holy and immaculate, and had no need for fasting.”

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July 29, 2012

Holy Prince Vladimir, Baptizer of Rus’

“Who was Vladimir prior to his Baptism? A lascivious and cruel ruler… But what happened after Prince Vladimir was immersed in the Baptismal waters?

 His life changed.

Through Baptism he accepted Christ in his mind and heart; along with Baptism he accepted a new value system that differed radically from that with which he had lived, in which he had believed, and for which he had previously fought.”

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July 5, 2012

Neither Investments Nor Technology Useful Until People Learn to Change

“Indeed, our progress both as a country and as a nation is largely determined by people’s inner, spiritual qualities.”

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June 29, 2012

Questions and Answers about Prayer 

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June 26, 2012

 Putin in Jerusalem & Bethlehem

Putin at Site of  Jesus Christ’s Baptism

During his visit to Jordan, Russian President Vladimir Putin took part in the opening ceremony of a guesthouse for pilgrims to be run by the Russian Orthodox Church. The building is located near the site of Jesus Christ’s baptism on the left bank of the River Jordan, which the president visited earlier in the day.

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June 10, 2012

All Saints Day

Remembering Martyrs of the Jasenovac death camp – the Serbian Golgotha

Jasenovac – a system of death camps set up by the Ustashi (Croatian fascists) in August 1941. Located on the territory of the independent Croatian state, collaborated with Nazi Germany, 60 km from Zagreb. Brutal treatment of prisoners, even the Nazis were horrified. Yasenovatskie martyrs – Orthodox prisoners in Croatia accepted a martyr’s death in 1941-1944.

The Martyrdom of Saint Vukasin of Jasenovac

The Martyrdom of Saint Vukasin of Jasenovac

The executioner, Ustashi, “Remember back in August, the camp was a large inflow of prisoners? We argued  who would kill more per night. That night I was doing better, it seemed to me that I seemed to break away from the earth, that I am in heaven: for never before have I felt bliss. For several hours I destroyed more than a thousand people, while my friendss killed no more than 300-400.

And then, at the time of highest rapture, my eyes fell on an elderly farmer, he was inexplicably calm and was silently watching as I kill victim after victim and how they died in great agony. His eyes seemed to paralyze me, I seemed turned to stone, a few seconds and I could not move.

Then, I took myself in hand went up to him to find out who he is. He said that his name was Vukasin, a native of the village Klepats that all his relatives were killed by Ustashe, and he himself was sent to Jasenovac. He talked about it with the same composure that shocked me a lot stronger than the terrible shrieks and groans of the dying people around us. As I listened to the old man, looking in his sky-clear eyes, it suddenly flared up within me an irresistible desire to do the most cruel tortures of hell to destroy his inner peace. He looked as if looking through me, and quietly but distinctly said:

“My child, do your job!”.

From these words, I finally went mad, rushed at him, gouged out eyes, cut out the heart, cut the throat and shoved his feet into the pit. And then if something in me snapped. I could no longer kill.  Since then I have no rest. I started drinking more and more, but alcohol makes for long forgotten, and even intoxication I hear this voice: “My child, do your job!”. And then, bumping on the walls of the houses, running through the streets with shouts and beat crush everything that comes in the way, throw on anybody. At night, no sleep, only comes oblivion, I again see a clear view of the old man and I hear it’s unbearable, “My child, do your job!”. I turned into a lump of horror and pain, I am powerless before this nightmare. Day and night haunts me pale serene face of Vukasin Kleptsa. ‘
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June 3, 2012

Pentecost – Trinity Sunday

Witnesses to the Holy Spirit

‘Every Christian is a witness to God…Thus, the power of Christian witness is that we speak of the Lord, Whom we know; of grace, which we have experienced; of blessing, which we have felt; and of faith, which we have in our hearts. If we do not have the Spirit, if we do not have this power, then we are poor witnesses…

” To Him we all cry out: “O Heavenly King, Comforter, Spirit of Truth, Who art everywhere present and fillest all things, Treasury of good things and Giver of Life, come and dwell in us.”Amen.’

Patriarch Kirril led the service of Divine Liturgy at the Dormition Cathedral of the Holy Trinity St. Sergius Lavra.

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May 24, 2012

Day of Slavic Language and Culture

“The Days of Slavic Literature and Culture opened in Russia on the feast day of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Teachers of the Slavs. Thousands of people came to the Kremlin, to Vasilievsky Spusk, to pray before the Iveron Icon given by the President to the Church, to share in the joy of the Feast of the Lord’s Ascension, and to wish His Holiness, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia, many years on the occasion of his name-day.”  – Pravmir.com

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May 8, 2012

The Patriarch laid a wreath at the

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

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May 7, 2012

President Putin Blessed by Patriarch Kirill

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April 22, 2012

Russians Defend Christianity

Over 65,000 Christians in Moscow attended a service outside the Cathedral of Christ the Savior last Sunday. Tens of Thousands of motorcyclists defended the Church last Saturday along with tens of thousands of cars in a parade and a rally for the Church. The church has been under attack recently and sacred Christian objects attacked this spring were taken to the cathedral for the day. The faithful also denounced other cases of vandalism. Other similar services and rallies took place all over Russia.

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April 19, 2012

Medvedev attends Consecration of St. Nicholas Cathedral

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April 15, 2012

Easter with Patriarch, Medvedev & Putin

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Medvedev Thanks Patriarch for Revival

“While sharing the Paschal joy with you, I want to express gratitude for the clergy’s efforts aimed at the nation’s spiritual revival, the consolidation of public peace and accord and the upbringing of the younger generation…  The Russian Orthodox Church has always been the keeper of our people’s traditions and for centuries protected its sacred things and served in the interests of the country’s unity and consolidation.” – Medvedev

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April 14, 2012

Russian Believers Meet Holy Fire

The Holy Fire from Jerusalem arrived at Moscow’s Vnukovo-1 Airport on Saturday

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April 13, 2012

Russia to Guard it’s Christianity

Russian legislators in the Duma (Russian Parliament) have set up a group to protect traditional Christian values and fight “aggressive liberalism,” secularism, violence, and drug, alcohol and gambling addiction.

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Fire from Christ’s Sepulchre brought to Russia

Every year, fire from heaven miraculously descends on the stone where Christ’s body lay after being taken from the cross. I know, I was skeptical too until I saw it.

Holy Fire in Jerusalem: Proofs & Testimonies

Testimonies from Doctors and unbelievers taped last year. Near the end of the video (27:37) there is a woman who places the fire on her gentle face several times without getting burned. You have to be there to believe.

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April 12, 2012

Patriarch Kirill Blessed the World

“…The invocation of the Holy Spirit, so that the grace of God descend on the world…And now let us pray, that the power of divine grace, in spite of our weakness and sinfulness inherent in every person and every member of the Church, descend on the world, and consecrate it in the sanctification of all people. Amen.”

.April 7, 2012

All Night Vigil by Patriarch

In the beginning of this video, the Bishop to the left of the Patriarch is holding the Ark of the Lord’s Robe.  Near the end of the video is shown a shrine to a small piece of the Cross of Christ. At the end of the video the Patriarch holds the nail from the Cross, 19:45.

.April 7, 2012

Cossacks Support Orthodox Church

“Your Holiness! On behalf of our great homeland of the Cossacks we would like to assure you that we are faithful to Russia and the Russian Church. We all took an oath of allegiance to our Patriarch, As chieftains of the Cossack troops, we are doing everything in our power to prevent the desecration of churches and the violation of faith, “

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March 24, 2012

This is not America, No Blasphemy in Russia

Punk Band Desecrated Cathedral

Three alleged members of the group have since been detained and could face up to seven years behind bars if found guilty of hooliganism charges.

“We will have no future if sacred shrines are desecrated, if this desecration is seen by some as virtue, as some proper expression of political protest, as some appropriate action or harmless joke,” the patriarch said during a service in a Moscow church on Saturday.

The Christ the Savior Cathedral hosts part of the Holy Tunic, a robe which is said to have been worn by Jesus Christ before his crucifixion.

The group said the performance was a protest against Patriarch Kirill’s support for Vladimir Putin

God expects the all-female group Pussy Riot to repent for their anti-Putin “punk prayer” in Moscow’s largest cathedral, a leading Russian Orthodox official has said.

“The Church does not want to destroy its enemies, but change the sinners for the better”

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March 5, 2012

Patriarch Kirill Congratulates Putin

“Russian Orthodox Church will continue working with the State for approval in the country of the true spiritual and moral ideals, moral values, which for centuries was built by Russia – justice, mercy, honesty, conscientiousness, love of country and neighbor, ready to serve them for his work.

The Lord be with you and even accompany you to bless a new period of your public service, giving good health, strength and power of worthy assistants, crowning success of your labors”.

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March 2, 2012

First Friday of Lent

Holy Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill celebrated the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts

in the Dormition Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.

March 1, 2012

Homily of His Holiness Patriarch Kirill

The same law applies in the spiritual life, but everything needs proof. Dirt, which is present in our souls, is as dangerous to our lives – and the spiritual and physical. But how to define this level of pollution of the soul? What instrument can measure how dangerous this mud covering our soul?

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February 22, 2012

The Patriarch’s Council for Culture

excerpt:

Today we need to create an environment in which our society, especially young people, shall reject vulgarity, from the domination of what is now called pop…

But today there is no such choice. Look at television programs: is it possible to relate all of this muddy stream, which now falls in the first place, the consciousness of youth, and indeed our nation, with the rare manifestations of high culture, a strong intellect, the moral principle that in a few moments we can see on television?

So, what percentage of programs are aimed at a person to cultivate intellectually, spiritually and aesthetically, and what – the fact that all this was destroyed, and then, as I said earlier, pseudo?

Video in Russian:

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February 20, 2012

Church asks the state

toughen anti-alcohol policy

Shorten the time frame trade in alcohol, to tell students about the real dangers of alcohol, to increase penalties for its sale to minors and to strengthen control over the implementation of already adopted regulation.

“A man obsessed with this fatal passion, not only distorts the nature of their suffering and material losses, but also spiritually dying, falling into the slavery of sin, The Russian Orthodox Church seeks to assert in the society healthy and sober lifestyle. It is with this purpose in 2009 was created by the Church Council to protect the public from the threat of alcohol, which carries out legislative and advocacy activities aimed at combating one of the most dangerous social and moral ills, “- Patriarch Kirill

Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in his address stressed that the fight against the threat of alcohol – a common cause of Church and State. “Creating a modern social infrastructure, involvement of the younger generation to physical culture and sports, promotion of family values, healthy lifestyles – it is our common goal, shared responsibility”, – said Vladimir Putin. He expressed hope that Congress will present a “major new initiative aimed at strengthening co-operation and partnership between the state and religious organizations, civil society institutions.”

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February 17, 2012

“We Listen to God,

Because We Really Love Him”

Bishop Benjamin of San Francisco

“There was certain emptiness inside, a kind-of hole that could not be filled…the service was in Slavonic, I couldn’t understand anything, but I was comfortable there—”

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February 16, 2012

Petition to Remove Lenin from Red Square

“In the history of Russia there has never been in power such a tragedy and inhuman leader, like Lenin. He was responsible for deaths of millions of our people during the Red Terror, civil war, exile and starvation.” The sons of Russian immigrants feel that Russia’s leadership, in keeping the mausoleum and the cemetery, “adheres to Lenin’s call” – the dictatorship of the proletariat and the world revolution. The petition was sent to Dmitry Medvedev and Patriarch Kirill to rebury the remains of Lenin and other Soviet leaders, buried near the Kremlin wall

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Saint Alexander Schmorell

“Alexander Schmorell was beheaded on 13 July 1943. He was only 25 at the time. He was an Orthodox Christian who had put his life at risk by being part of a anti-Nazi resistance group.
The white rose in his hand symbolizes the White Rose group Schmorell co-founded with Hans Scholl in the spring of 1942. Before the arrests began the following February, the group succeeded — assisted by friends in many German and Austrian cities and towns — in widely distributing a series of six anti-Nazi leaflets. All six members of the core group were guillotined. (The story is powerfully told in an the Oscar-nominated film, “Sophie Scholl – The Final Days,” much of which was photographed in Munich.) The white rose is a paschal symbol, a sign of the victory of life over death.”

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February 16, 2012

Survival and Resistance in a Secular World

There will be an International Conference on “Religious Practice in the USSR: survival and resistance in a violent secularization” Feb 16 – 18.  Those wishing to attend the conference, please send your name to the address: Religion.USSR @ gmail.com or call the Center for Religious Studies in Moscow: 7-499-2506340.

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Escape From the New Pagan Captivity

What efforts are being made today to build a pagan society and have a pagan way of life! And questions of philosophy goes into the background – does it matter who believes in any god and believe it at all, as long as he lived by the law of the flesh, according to pagan law. The danger now looming over the spiritual lives of people, not less, than in times past, when the threat was mostly physical, not spiritual. We revealed the image of the Savior in order that we, like the ancient inhabitants of Edessa, were saved – saved from the new pagan captivity, from the madness that seized and captures people’s minds. This image appeared to us so suddenly – is it not a miracle of God, is Moscow, Russia, and around the world? – Patriarch Kirill

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St. Nicholas Church now in Church’s hands

February 15, 2012

The Soviets owned church of St. Nicholas, built on donations of Russian believers, is now in Church’s hands. The faithful never stopped worshipping here even during the nightmare of communism. Archbishop Mark Yegoryevsky explains in an interview.

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Youth Day Celebrated

February 15, 2012

“Orthodox Youth Day is celebrated in all dioceses of the Russian Orthodox Church. The Feast of the Presentation of the Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, in the framework of the World Day of Orthodox Youth in all the dioceses of the Russian Orthodox Church are hundreds of different activities – Candlemas balls, meetings with the clergy, youth, educational and missionary action and much more”

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Putin called for the church in public TV

February 8, 2012

“Voice of the Church, the church authorities, wise mentors and advocates must be heard in full force – including, of course, on federal television channels,”

“The participation of religious organizations, especially the Russian Orthodox Church, in public television is absolutely in demand”, said Putin

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Putin met with religious leaders

February 8, 2012

in the official residence of the Patriarch in the Danilov Monastery met with the Patriarch of Moscow, Kirill and the leaders of traditional religious communities in Russia.

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Putin to meet Russia’s religious leaders

Feb 1, 2012

Russia’s Prime Minister and Presidential candidate Vladimir Putin will soon meet with representatives of all major religions in the country, he stated during his meeting with Russia’s Patriarch Kirill.

Putin came to Moscow’s St.Daniel Monastery to congratulate Patriarch Kirill on the third anniversary of his enthronization.

The Prime Minister presented the Patriarch with  white roses and an icon and thanked him for strengthening spiritual pillars of the society and ties with other religions.  – Voice of Russia

Putin Visits Tikhvin Monastery

January 30, 2012

“…all Russian tsars starting from Ivan the Terrible – except Nicholas II – had come to the icon for a blessing before ascending to the throne.

Vladimir Putin asked if the monastery has any problems and how the renovation work is proceeding. The Father Superior told him about the work being carried out and how it is planned to spend the money allocated for the monastery.

As he was walking out of the cathedral, the prime minister stopped to talk to believers, who addressed him with requests. A woman working in the monastery told Vladimir Putin that her husband had worked in the Kamchatka Peninsula and developed a disability but could not get a compensation he is eligible for. The woman handed a letter with her request to the prime minister. – January 30, 2012

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Russia’s Orthodox Church Today

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The Faithful and the Siege of Leningrad

Metropolitan Vladimir of St. Petersburg at the 68th anniversary of the lifting of the siege of Leningrad

January 27, 2012

The city miraculously survived the siege.

“I survived by a miracle. My mother worked from early morning until late at night, so, I had to stay on my own. During the air raids, I hid under the bed or behind the oven, whilst mum prayed to God that our home would be spared.” – Valentina Maksimova

video from Russia – Siege of Leningrad  (English subtitles)

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Putin Speaks About His Baptism

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Putin attends Christmas service

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Results of 2011 favorable for Russian Church

Now, it has 101 dioceses, 31,000 parishes and over 800 monasteries – not only in Russia, but all over the world as well. Within these 20 years, 30,000 Orthodox churches were newly built or restored from ruins in Russia.

About a year ago, Kirill started reforms aimed at making priests and bishops closer to people. This is done mainly by dividing large dioceses into smaller ones.

“A smaller diocese really enables a priest or a bishop to be closer to his flock. This is a very good trend, which gives the Church a strong impetus for further development.” – Vladimir Legoyda

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Vladimir Putin venerates Virgin Mary Belt relic

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Putin for restoration of northern churches

Nov 9, 2011

Prime Minister Vladimir Putin promised to help the residents of the Archangelsk region in the north-west of Russia in the restoration of two churches in Kholmogory and the village of Lomonosovo and also in building a memorial complex dedicated to great Russian scientist Lomonosov.

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St Basil’s 450th anniversary

Celebrating  the 450th anniversary  from its completed date July 12, 1561

Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia has held a divine service at Saint Basil the Blessed Cathedral on Tuesday saying the Church is a

  living testimony of the everlasting Russian spirit and Russian Orthodox Church.

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Russian Men’s Choir Inside St Basil’s Cathedral

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Patriarch grateful to Putin and Medvedev at Easter

2011

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Dec 3, 2010 20:31 Moscow Time

A total of 23,000 Orthodox churches have been rebuilt in Russia in the past 20 years, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia said Friday.

“Nothing of the kind has happened in any country at any time in history,” the leader of Russia’s Orthodox Christians said.

Churches all across Russia were destroyed during the Soviet era, while many others were turned into museums of atheism or used as warehouses.

“This has been happening against the backdrop of all social, political and economic confrontations… The world should see the Orthodox Russia’s great feat of rebuilding all that was destroyed,” he said.

The patriarch recalled that by 1991 Russia had only 7,000 operating churches and 22 monasteries. Today the country has over 30,000 churches and some 1,000 monasteries.

Kirill was elected Russia’s church leader on February 1, 2009. He replaced Patriarch Alexy II, who died in December 2008 at the age of 79. Alexy led a revival of faith in Russia following the collapse of the Soviet system.

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Feb 12, 2010

Church property should be returned – Kremlin official

Church property confiscated by the Soviet authorities must be returned
despite the complexity of the issue, the deputy head of the Kremlin
administration said on Friday.

..The issue was raised during a meeting between Russian Prime Minister
Vladimir Putin and Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill earlier
this year, when they discussed plans to change the ownership structure
of the property used by religious groups, including buildings and land
plots.

In almost two decades since the collapse of the officially atheist
Soviet Union, the Orthodox Church has through government decrees
regained ownership of just 100 or so of 16,000 churches and
cathedrals.

While the Orthodox Church will not get back churches now on the UNESCO
world heritage list, including St. Basil’s Cathedral on Red Square and
the churches within the Kremlin walls, it is expected to have Moscow’s
Novodevichy Convent returned to it later in 2010.

Muslim and Jewish groups have welcomed the proposals, and the Roman
Catholic Church in Russia has also expressed hope that it will get
back Catholic churches and cathedrals built before 1917.

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